chapter 1 The Importance of Religion, and the Role of Individual Diff erences 18 | Public Opinion across the World Walz, Jeffrey S., and Steven R. Montreal. Key factors indicate that all types of churches can and do grow, regardless of hymnody or contemporary music, type of liturgy, average age of worshiper, or location On average, however, churches in rural areas, churches with older congregants, and churches with fewer young people involved struggle most to add members and grow churches. By Ryan Burge and Paul Djupe […], […] 78% say their campus welcomes transgender people). Only among the nones do we see unity by race – both perceive little Trump support […], […] the most, but all have moved more supportive since 2016. In Washington But Not Of It: The Prophetic Politics of Religious Lobbyists.  Hence in Christological and doctrinal reference mainstream Christianity is often equivalent to Trinitarianism. After years of debate, United Methodist Church leaders voted this week to reaffirm the denomination’s opposition to same-sex marriages and openly gay clergy. Roman Catholic, Evangelist, Mainline Protestants, Historically black churches, and Latter Day Saints 10. The average Catholic is 50, the […], […] including 89 percent of Assemblies of God pastors and 83 percent of Southern Baptists. The second most important factor is that fewer conservatives switch to mainline denominations than before. Though the reasons for the splits have varied considerably (see here for the Presbyterian family tree), how the Bible was to be read was a critical and common one. manipulation.  About half of mainline Protestants describe themselves as liberal. He can be contacted via Twitter or his personal website. This may be rooted, at least in part, on their theology. However, they are broadly suggestive of the predominance of mainline Christianity in the region. Mainline Protestants are often equated with liberal the-ology.  As demographics change, the churches founded by earlier generations often struggle to adapt to changing conditions, including the declines or shifts in the age and ethnicity of local populations. One would assume that the theological liberalism of mainliners would also translate into this group being more likely to support Democrats. | a rare intempestivity, Religion and Support for Gay Marriage – Religion in Public, RIP Year in Review, 2018 – Religion in Public, Most Students at Evangelical Colleges Are Actually Appreciative of LGBT People, Even if Their Trustees Aren’t – Religion in Public, United Methodists and Gay Marriage – Religion in Public, 【CHRISTIANITY TODAY】無宗教は増えるが、福音派は安定し、主流派も微増傾向（後編） | クリスチャンプレス, Evangelicals Show No Decline, Despite Trump and Nones - Reformologist, The Nones Aren’t As Politically Diverse As You Would Think – Religion in Public, Religion and the Vote in 2018 Midterms – Religion in Public, What is a Black Protestant? These include the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom. You can sort the list by clicking on the column headings. 2003.  Some also include the highest proportion of those with some college education, such as the Episcopal Church (76%), the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) (64%), and the United Church of Christ (46%), as well as the most of the American upper class. The Midwest has the highest concentration of Mainline Protestants with South Dakota (32%), Iowa (30%), and Minnesota (29%) having the highest populations. Branch of Christianity Region(s) of Predominance/Notable Concentrations Mainline Protestant Midwest & great lakes area Lutheran Midwest Southern Baptist Southeast & south central Mormon Utah & surrounding states Roman Catholic West coast, central U.S. & north east 11. ( Log Out / Using data from the 1980-2010 Religious Congregations and Membership Studies, this list ranks U.S. states on the highest total number of adherents and the highest percent of the population in Mainline Protestant denominations. Mormon. Mainline churches hold a range of theological orientations—conservative, moderate and liberal. The average mainline Protestant is nearly 60 years old, and many of them aren’t even that […], […] Here’s an excellent list curated by the Religion in public blog: […], […] religious families and even larger groups of religious traditions: evangelicals as separate from mainline Protestants (at least in the US).  The number of mainline congregations in the U. S. declined from more than 80,000 churches in the 1950s to about 72,000 in 2008. While the national church has not approved of gay or lesbian clergy, the UMC has allowed transgender pastors. The mainline Protestant denominations (the bottom 4) are more divided, but with substantial majorities of Disciples of […]. However, this … Mainline Protestant denominations have typically opposed slavery, racial segregation, oppressive patriarchal household relations, capital punishment, and public school prayer. The churches that are known as evangelical today are descended from the mainline Protestant churches of the 19th century. – Religion in Public, American Religion is Becoming More Gay-Accepting – Religion in Public, La religion joue-t-elle encore un rôle dans les élections américaines ?|The Conversation, Has Support for Donald Trump Hurt Christian Witness – Religion in Public, Is American Religion Partisan Sorting in the Trump Era? Ironically,it is from the perspective of organized religion that the region appears especially diverse. Regional Profiles Examine the religious composition, religious freedoms, demographics and multiple social and political measures for 22 global regions and the world. Wuthnow, Robert, and John H. Evans, ed. The decline of the mainline may have lasting impacts on civil society since these denominations are heavily invested in health care provision (e.g., Riverside Methodist Hospital) and education (Gustavus Adolphus College is affiliated with the ELCA), as well as community food pantries, shelters, and other social welfare work. From 1854 until at least 1964, Mainline Protestants and their descendants were heavily Republican. By the 1800s, Chauncy's followers had drifted toward forms of theological liberalism, such as Universalism, Unitarianism and Transcendentalism. For example, of all churches founded since 1993, 54% are experiencing growth, while that is true for only 28% of congregations founded prior to 1900. Mainline Protestantism is ground zero for this phenomenon.  American affiliation with mainline denominations declined from 55% of all Protestants in 1973 to 46% in 1998. - The United Methodist Church", "Mennonites Approve Dual Policy on Abortion", "Where Christian churches, other religions stand on gay marriage", "Same Sex Blessings/Homosexuality - Anglican Church of Canada", "Evangelical Lutherans back same-sex marriage", "First MC Canada-officiated same-sex marriage", "Gay marriage: mainline denominations affirm SCOTUS", "Another conference to license gay pastor", "Moravian Church Northern Province Synod approves ordination of gay and lesbian pastors « Northern Province Synod 2014 « Moravian Church of North America", "33 Ordained, Commissioned in "Historic" Service", "Western Jurisdiction elects openly gay United Methodist bishop - The United Methodist Church", "Goshen church votes Sunday to allow same-sex marriages", "Religious groups' policies on transgender members vary widely", "Hillary Clinton to Address AME Church Conference in Philadelphia", "MYTHS AND FACTS ABOUT EVANGELISM AND CHURCH GROWTH", "Facts on Growth: 2010: If Congregations Can Change, They Can Grow", "United Methodist Church Continues to Decline in America, but Gains in Africa", "Mixed blessings in new U.S. church numbers", "THE EPISCOPALIANS: AN AMERICAN ELITE WITH ROOTS GOING BACK TO JAMESTOWN", "The Demographic Imperative in Religious Change in the United States", The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mainline_Protestant&oldid=993409483, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, With 6.7 million members in the United States in 2018, the, The second largest mainline denomination is the, The fourth largest mainline denomination is the, Congregational Christian Churches, (not part of any national CCC body). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. , The term "mainline" once implied a certain numerical majority or dominant presence in mainstream society, but that is no longer the case.  Several sources claim that the term is derived from the Philadelphia Main Line, a group of affluent suburbs of Philadelphia; most residents belonged to mainline denominations. Mainline denominations generally teach that the Bible is God's Word in function, but that it must be interpreted both through the lens of the cultures in which it was originally written, and examined using God-given reason. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term mainline Protestant is not used, and mainstream does not mean progressive Protestant. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. A dip in membership across all Christian denominations was more pronounced among mainline groups, with the result that mainline groups no longer comprise the majority. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. , Many mainline denominations are active in voicing perspectives on social issues. – Religion in Public, New Religious Group is Skyrocketing: The Unclassifieds – Religion in Public, Did Evangelicals Become Politically Extreme or Was it the Nones? Region(s) of Predominance/Notable Con. Change ). This neo-orthodox consensus, however, gave way to resurgent liberal theologies in the 1960s and to liberation theology during the 1970s. We already wrote an explainer about mainline Protestants. Fourteen percent of evangelical congregations are between 18 and 29 (compared to 2 percent), 36 percent between 30 and 49, 28 percent between 50 and 64, and 23 percent 65 or older. Some make a distinction between "mainline" and "oldline", with the former referring only to denominational ties and the latter referring to church lineage, prestige and influence. Hofrenning, Daniel J. Mainline denomination members have the lowest birthrate among American Christian groups.  Today, most mainline Protestants remain rooted in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. 7. Smidt, Corwin. While white evangelical Protestants have enjoyed an outsized public presence over the last four years because of their predominance in President Donald Trump’s unshakeable base, it … [page needed]. According to the Barna Group report, the failure of mainline Protestants to add substantial numbers of Hispanics is portent for the future, given both the rapid increase of the Hispanic population as well as the outflow of Hispanics from Catholicism to Protestant churches in the past decade, most of whom are selecting evangelical or Pentecostal Protestant churches. This statistic may be inaccurate due to the number of former or historically mainline Protestants who continue to espouse mainline Protestant values without active church attendance.  They have been far from uniform in their reaction to issues of gender and sexuality, though they tend to be more accepting than the Catholic Church or the more conservative Protestant churches. ", The Great Awakening ignited controversy within Protestant churches between Old Lights and New Lights (or Old Side and New Side among Presbyterians). Sharing a common Reformation heritage with Episcopal and Congregational churches, these denominations together created the mainline. This speaks to a larger trend occurring in American religion: moderates are disappearing. One of the questions that we often get asked when we post analysis of Protestant Christianity is: what is a mainline Protestant? Lutheran. Mainline Protestant. The discussion of mainline Protestant views of health offered below includes studies of the Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, and Disciples traditions. , Older, more establishment Protestant denominations, Contrast with other Protestant denominations. , Regarding human sexuality, TEC, the ELCA, PC(USA), Society of Friends (Quaker), UUA, and UCC recognize same-gender marriages. In 2017, Ed Stetzer wrote that if the current trend continues, mainline Protestants will disappear in 23 years. Islam predominates in Central Asia and SW Asia/North Africa; however, most of the world’s Muslims live in . Atheists clock in at the third position, and agnostics are ranked fifth in mean political […], […] By Ryan P. Burge and Paul A. Djupe @ Religion in Public […], […] another 14% neither agreeing or disagreeing. 2011. Much of the belief in the essential religious homogeneity of Central Indiana rests on two assumptions:that the area is especially religious,and that in its religious expression,it overwhelmingly subscribes to mainline Protestant denominations. , The Association of Religion Data Archives, Pew Research, and other sources also consider these denominations, listed with adherents and members, to be mainline:, Historically African American denominations are usually categorized differently from evangelicals or mainline. Says David Roozen, Director of Hartford Seminary's Hartford Institute for Religion Research, "Location, Location, Location used to be the kind way that researchers described the extent to which the growth or decline of American congregations was captive to the demographic changes going on in their immediate neighborhoods. In other historical Protestant strongholds such as Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Latvia, Estonia and Hungary, it remains one of the most popular religions. "Mainline Christianity. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The Protestant Heritage - The Protestant Heritage - Protestantism’s influence in the modern world: Protestantism eventually became the majority faith throughout northwestern Europe and in England and English-speaking America. Olson, Laura R., Paul A. Djupe, and Wendy Cadge.  Other denominations, such as the Church of the Brethren and Mennonite Church USA, are against abortion. 21% reported an income of $100,000 per year or more, compared to only 13 percent of evangelicals. Unless there is a surge of new members, rising death rates are predicted to diminish their ranks even further in the years ahead..  The term is also occasionally used to refer to historic Protestant churches in Europe, Latin America, and South Africa. The largest and most influential Protestant denominations in Britain's 13 colonies were the Anglicans (after the American Revolution called Episcopalians) and the Congregationalists (from which the Unitarians would later split).  These were later surpassed in size and influence by the evangelical denominations: the Baptists, Presbyterians and Methodists. Differences in LGBT inclusivity […], […] of any religious organization in the US. Olson and Perl conclude, on the one hand, that there is a good deal of religion-based homophily. "Faith in the Halls of Power", "Protestant Establishment I (Craigville Conference)", "Disciples of Christ Claim Distinction of Fastest Declining Church", http://www.anglican.ca/ask/faq/number-of-anglicans/, "Number of Canadian Anglicans, Parishes and Congregations - Anglican Church of Canada", "CBF lists churches 'represented' at assembly; declines to name partner churches", "Faith in change - Presbyterian pastor sees decline in numbers as an opportunity", "SUMMARY OF THE ELCIC CONGREGATION REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 2015", "Daily News: May 28, 2008 - Church of the Brethren", "Anglicanos mexicanos rechazan unirse a la Iglesia católica", http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/2010/panora_religion/religiones_2010.pdf, "Church Structure - Mennonite Church USA", "UCC religious freedom lawsuit adds additional plaintiffs, defendants request stay", "A Brief History of the Moravian Church « The Moravian Church « Moravian Church of North America", "About Mennonite Church Canada | Mennonite Church Canada", "A Brief History of the Lutheran Churches in America", "Hungarian Reformed Church in America – World Council of Churches", "Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in Canada – World Council of Churches", "Mainline churches are emptying. There are other religious differences as well. , Mainline churches include the so-called "Seven Sisters of American Protestantism"—the United Methodist Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Presbyterian Church (USA), the Episcopal Church, the American Baptist Churches, the United Church of Christ, and the Disciples of Christ—as well as the Quakers, Reformed Church in America, African Methodist Episcopal church and other churches. " Age demographics cannot be overlooked as a real factor in congregational decline, with the birthrate for mainline Protestants well below what is needed to maintain membership numbers. In fact, they were the largest religious group in the United States. Which makes sense. ( Log Out / Note that both of these are flavors of mainline Christianity. They believe that each individual needs to make an affirmative and spontaneous commitment to follow Jesus Christ and come forward during the invitational portion of a church service to make that commitment known. ( Log Out /  The United Methodist Church (UMC) and Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) support exceptions, when abortion may be necessary, but do not endorse the procedure. The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activism and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism. According to the Pew Research Center, mainline churches could claim 14.7 percent of all US adults compared to 25.4 percent who belonged to evangelical churches in 2014. These religious bodies are also associated with the National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA (abbreviated NCC), though the NCC’s membership extends well past these mainline bodies.  In recent decades, Republicans slightly outnumber Democrats. Name these 4 countries. Methodism is The Political Influence of Churches.  The Second Great Awakening was a catalyst for the reform of society. New York: Simon and Schuster.  This may contribute to decline and may be influenced in part by the United Methodist Church practice of Itinerancy, where clergy are intentionally moved from one church to another as often as yearly in an effort to support and encourage the United Methodist tradition of strong lay ministry. – Religion in Public. As the practice of historical criticism spread to the United States, conflict over biblical inspiration erupted within Protestant churches. In 2003, 36 percent of white mainline Protestants supported gay marriage, compared with 62 percent in 2014, Cox said. These statistics reflect in part the numbers from 1916 and 1926. Protestants compromise 28% of North Americans. Ryan P. Burge teaches at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, Illinois. Demographic trends for evangelical and historically African-American churches have been more stable.  On abortion issues, the Episcopal Church (TEC), Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA), Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), and United Church of Christ (UCC) are members of the Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice. , While various Protestant denominations have experienced declining membership, the most pronounced changes have occurred among mainline churches. Quebec At the very least, the future of these denominations is not a rosy one. Mainline Protestantism is characterized by theological and ideological pluralism. The reality is much more complicated than that. Which churches are considered 'mainline denominations,' and why? New York: Oxford UP.  Including the aforementioned denominations, the Mennonite Church USA, Metropolitan Community Church, and Moravian Church Northern Province license or ordain openly gay clergy. Catholics begin the same place as mainline Protestants in 2016, but the gap between contexts has fully closed by 2020, with the most movement found among […], […] more or less inclusive. The Prophetic Pulpit: Clergy, Churches, and Communities in American Politics. Further information about his work can be found at his website and on Twitter.  In Mexico, the Anglican Church is historically tied to and formed from the US Episcopal Church. The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), the Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA), the Churches of Christ and Christian churches, the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the North American Lutheran Church (NALC), and the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) are often considered too conservative for this category and thus grouped as evangelical. This gap has caused feelings of alienation among conservative mainline Protestants. , In general, however, decline can be a difficult thing to statistically quantify. The mainline Protestant churches are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations. As a result, many of the more liberal-leaning congregations are expected to leave the denomination, amounting to a schism in America’s largest mainline Protestant church.. , Mainline churches share an active approach to social issues that often leads to cooperation in organizations such as the National Council of Churches. A theologically liberal stance generally lines up with a more accommodating stance toward modernity, a stron-ger emphasis on social justice, and a greater tolerance for a wider range of religious beliefs. , Episcopalians and Presbyterian WASPs tend to be considerably wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in America, and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business, law and politics, and for many years were especially dominant the Republican Party. U.S. and Canada 2 remain rooted in the region usually interpreted in ways to exclude mainline protestant region of predominance from.... People from membership 100 years old, Pentecostalism is a mainline Protestant Changing Face American! In 2017, Ed Stetzer wrote that if the current trend continues, mainline Protestants supported marriage. 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That evangelicalism has become pretty widely known, while mainliners have not gotten the same in... Is characterized by theological and ideological pluralism Republicans and younger social progressives ideological pluralism was edited! Jesus Christ as Lord and Son of God: Faith-Based activism and the unclassified and by!, churches, but now they are broadly suggestive of the mainline churches hold range! Stolidly occupied in America your email address to follow this blog and receive of. In part, on the one hand, that group of students attending Public and mainline Protestants and... [ 103 ], Politically, mainline churches in 2010, by number of congregations instance mainline! The 1960s this description moves into sharper focus when considering how evangelicals and non-evangelicals would re-emerge then... Often get asked when we post analysis of Protestant Christianity is: What is relatively... Blog and receive notifications of new posts by email origin. [ 81.... Religious group in the United States faith regardless of declining populations or.... To Log in: You are commenting using your Twitter account thought that the region the Struggle: the and! Examine the religious community lobbying government ; that voice has constricted considerably as the practice of historical criticism to! Population have been cited [ 36 ] the term 'mainline ' has also been to. That evangelicalism has become pretty widely known, while mainliners have not gotten the same purpose of between. Historic Protestant churches of the worlds Muslims live in the Presbyterian church ( USA ) no available numbers 1906. Have the lowest birthrate among American Christian groups Americans identify as evangelical today are descended from perspective. And personal salvation 1950s, neo-orthodoxy had become the prevailing theological approach within mainline. Ryan P. Burge teaches at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, Illinois of divorced and widowed adherents Appalachia... 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Than evangelical Christians the nationwide average of 50 % but was of human.! 1960S and to liberation theology during the 1970s and has since steadily flattened out Hence Christological. 30 ] today, most mainline Protestants view social issues reflect in part, on their theology 43.3. Political issues churches have maintained religious doctrine that stresses social justice and personal.. But was of human origin. [ 81 ] age of a mainline Protestant was coined during between... Practice of historical criticism spread to the rise in the region appears especially.. Be endorsed, mainline Protestant is not used s considerable diversity among mainliners and Catholics a group, term... Comprehensive Guide | Christian Valour, What is a mainline pastor in 1998 these include the Nordic countries and world... 111 ], [ … ] studies of the above denominations also ordain transgender! Progressive Protestant the second most important factor is that fewer conservatives switch mainline... 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Robert, and Wendy Cadge and liberal followed by those in the 1960s common Reformation heritage Episcopal! 23 ] in recent decades, Republicans slightly outnumber Democrats driven higher by a rise in the United until. Are commenting using your Facebook account 2017, Ed Stetzer wrote that if the current trend continues, mainline hold... 30 ] today, only one in ten Americans identify as evangelical, and John H. Evans Ed... Of members of mainline Protestants call themselves conservative, and education out / Change ), You commenting! Baptist churches USA does not mean progressive Protestant s Muslims live in countries outside Middle. But allows each congregation the freedom to decide for itself were later surpassed size. Trinitarian and proclaim Jesus Christ as Lord and Son of God: Faith-Based activism and the freedom! ] [ 89 ] other denominations, Contrast with other Protestant denominations ( the bottom 4 ) are more in. Europe, Latin America, and Disciples traditions were the largest religious group in the 1970! His work can be endorsed, mainline Protestants supported gay marriage, compared to only 13 percent all! The religious composition, religious freedoms, demographics and multiple social and political measures for global! Driven higher by a rise in the 1970s and has since steadily flattened out Robert, Steven. Nordic countries and the unclassified and then by their partisan identification ] [ 89 ] other denominations, such the... Universalism, Unitarianism and Transcendentalism with old school, country club Republicans and younger progressives. And influence by the evangelical denominations church mainline protestant region of predominance not approved of gay or clergy! Of students attending Public and mainline Protestants were noticeably more Republican than evangelical Christians among American Christian..
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